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  1. Anderson KE, Bloomer JR, Bonkovsky HL, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the acute porphyrias. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:439-450.
  2. Crimlisk HL. The little imitator-porphyria: a neuropsychiatric disorder. J NeurolNeurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;62:319-328.
  3. Thadani H, Deacon A, Peters T. Diagnosis and management of porphyria. BMJ. 2000;320(7250);1647-1651.
  4. Porphyria. Genetics Home Reference. http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=porphyria. Accessed May 12, 2010.
  5. Porphyria, Acute Intermittent. eMedicine.Medscape.com. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/205220-overview. Accessed May 12, 2010.
  6. Elder GH, Hift, RJ. Treatment of acute porphyria. Hosp Med. 2001;62(7):422-5.
  7. Sassa S. Diagnosis and therapy of acute intermittent porphyria. Blood Rev. 1996;10 (1): 53-9.
  8. Herrick, AL; Moore, MR; McColl, KL; Cook, A; Goldberg, A. Controlled Trial of Haem Arginate in Acute Hepatic Porphyria. Lancet. 1989 Jun 10; 1 (8650):1295-7.
  9. Panhematin [Package Insert]. Lebanon, NJ: Recordati Rare Diseases; 2013.
  10. Watson CJ, PierachCA,Bossenmaier I, Cardinal R. Adv Intern Med. 1978;23:265-286.
  11. Pierach CA, Bossenmaier I, Cardinal R, Weimer M,Watson CJ. KlinWochenschr. 1980;58:829-832.
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  14. McColl KEL, Moore MR,Thompson GG, Goldberg A. Q J Med. 1981;50:161-174.
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  16. Albers, JW, Fink, JK. Porphyric Neuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2004 Oct;30(4):410-22.
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  19. Data on file: Recordati Rare Diseases Lebanon, NJ

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Signs and symptoms

The clinical features of an acute attack of Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP) vary greatly.3 The most common symptom is severe abdominal pain.1 Other neurovisceral and circulatory disturbances may occur.17 These clinical manifestations are all due to effects on the nervous system.17

Gastrointestinal

  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea

Neurologic

  • Pain in extremities, back, chest, neck or head
  • Paresis
  • Convulsions
  • Mental signs and symptoms
  • Respiratory paralysis

Cardiovascular

  • Tachycardia
  • Systemic arterial hypertension

Based on several series of patients with symptomatic Acute Intermittent Porphyria.

Signs and symptoms of Acute Intermittent Porphyria1

acute intermittent porphyria index of suspicion

Data compiled from several series of patients with symptomatic Acute Intermittent Porphyria.

Although [acute intermittent] porphyria is a relatively uncommon condition, it should be considered in patients presenting with an atypical medical, psychiatric, or surgical history.3